The first two were primarily or ostensibly for straight audiences where the gay characters are either minor to the main theme, or in which they live tragic lives and then died.
The third was those of high literary vales and were therefore valued by critics. The fourth was gay pornography. The AIDS sea change not only resulted in the death of many members of the gay community, but forever changed gay literature, including gay fiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. New York: Carroll and Graf. New York: St. Martin's Press. Archived from the original on September 26, Columbia University Press. The New York Times. The government controlled public utilities which included the media. The police padlocked the newspaper in what was seen as a warning to others perceived to be hostile. The end of was a terrible year for press freedom when the single deadliest attack against the media happened when 32 journalists among the 58 killed in a massacre in Ampatuan, Maguindanao province. They were attacked, brutally killed, and buried using a government-owned backhoe.
More than eight years later, none of the accused have been convicted. Almost a month before he took office, Pres. Rodrigo Duterte had already expressed his disdain for the media in the bluntest manner. And so, with an obvious declaration of war against this arm of democracy, his mouth continues to lash out at the media, with every whip skinning the very value of press freedom. In his SONA, Duterte made his first public statement against Rappler, an online journalism community which is known for its critical reports of the president. This move became a precedent of an ever-deepening conflict between Rappler and different government agencies.
The media site escalated the order to a legal battle that still continues as of press time. Rappler has since published countless pieces detailing their ownership status that disproves Pres. Most recently, the Department of Education DepEd terminated its five-year partnership with Rappler that involves training of students and teachers in journalism, disaster management, and online platforms.
On April 14—21, , Rappler was also refused to be given accreditation in covering the Palarong Pambansa held in Vigan City and nearby towns in Ilocos Sur. However, the property in conflict is a court case between Sunvar Realty Development Corporation, a developer owned by the Prietos, and the City of Makati. The president dragging the name of the family-owned paper and going out of his way to deal cases on a municipal level gave away the veil in this another attack to the media.
The instance in was not the first time that the president hit Inquirer.
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The discussion on the ownership is still being discussed as of press time, but some employees from the paper are already fearing for the looming effect on editorial independence. On April 27, , Pres. Duterte accused TV giant ABS-CBN of swindling for not showing his political ads during the campaign season and threatened to block their franchise renewal in But the harassment on the media is not only done by the executive; the contagious hate for reporters has spread to the legislative as well.
This harassment of mainstream media continues to hamper waves of fear toward the student press, which could only lie in wait for whatever form of attack their respective school administration can do to it. After all, student publications play a big role in promoting critical thinking among students, a trait that the present administration is trying to suppress from the citizens. But, alas, the first case of suppression against the student press during this administration has finally taken its form through the discrimination of two staffers from one of the most formidable student press in the country, the Philippine Collegian of University of the Philippines—Diliman.
In a primer released by the student publication in its Facebook page, the two student-journalists were excluded from the list of examinees of the editorial exam, a large part of the selection process for the next editor in chief of the publication which is being carried out by the Board of Judges BOJ.
The disqualification was grounded by the case that the two students are about to graduate this school year, which they already dismissed as a non-issue for both of them are taking up another program by next semester.
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The exclusion took the students by surprise as they did not receive any notice. On May 5, as they were taking the case to the BOJ, the examinations were already underway. Their appeal did not bear fruit either, as the decision to bar them was still upheld by the board, with the backing of the university chancellor this time. To strengthen their campaign in upholding press freedom given the recent light of the issue, the Philippine Collegian held a Black Friday protest on May 11, Duterte, Pres. Trump, and Businessman Ayala engaging in a threesome as the cover. Their lampoon release is always something the UPD community anticipates because of its political parodies that elevate critical thinking.
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Student Press. However, the recent issue with this formidable student publication is only the tip of the iceberg of the suppression that plagued the student press.
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Some issues were already so deeply ingrained in the culture that it has already become a norm. University administrations withholding publication funds is the most common example.
But this law, also known as Republic Act No. Hence, a bill is being pushed through the Congress to defend the rights of the campus press. House Bill , known as the Campus Press Freedom Act which was introduced by Kabataan Party-List Representative Terry Ridon, proposed for a mandatory funding of student publications and mandatory establishment of at least one student publication, among others.
But imposing it to become a law seems so far-fetched seeing that it is only on its first reading despite being proposed way back in People may not have noticed it, but the works of the journalists have paved way for the truth to make its citizens foolproof. It is also good to note that what they report spark movements for change. Like, for a recent example, if the Inquirer had not reported the military base that has been constructed by China because, for some reason, the government refused to tell us so , we would not have known about this threat of territorial security.
Forces continue to threaten the media because they want to get ahold of the truth. For some who have full trust in the government, this would not matter as they tend to take in whatever the administration feeds them.
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