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However in the case of the ivory transfers, the original design on copper was created as ridges, whereas in the case of Skinner's invention, the design on the copper original was created as grooves. In makers of steel blades had also used copper originals with ridges. In that case, the inked design was transferred as a blocker to the blade, then the whole blade was immersed in acid which ate away the metal between the design-lines, leaving the blocked design-ridges proud.
Therefore the method used by Skinner was different from previous usages. The method of executing this etching and gilding on steel, is the invention of Mr. Thomas Skinner, of Sheffield". The bottom is ornamented with a variety of scroll work which might be supposed to have been produced by the ordinary process of engraving or etching, but has been effected by a process which Mr Skinner describes as printing on metal There is, however, a marked difference in the fine lines, from those of ordinary engravings, the sharpness of outline being wanting.
The recommendation of the process is its cheapness. Skinner registered a patent no. This American patent is described thus:  . Thomas Skinner, Pittsburg, Pa. Method of Forming Designs upon Metals, Ivory, etcetera. December 24, To produce ornamental figures upon steel, the design is first engraved upon a copper plate. A proof is taken upon thin paper with ink made by boiling oil to a viscid consistence and adding a little lampblack.
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The design is transferred to the steel plate, and the paper is removed with water, leaving the ink upon the steel. The plate is then coated with a light spirit varnish. The ink is removed by application of oil of turpentine, and dilute acid applied to act only on the parts previously covered by the ink.
After removal of the acid by water the varnish is removed by benzine. The herein-described method of preparing the design upon the article to be operated on preparatory to the etching process by the means of transfers, substantially as set forth. In , his UK patent for the invention of "improvements in the mode or process of etching on steel or iron, or other metal or substance" was Gazetted. A description of the process was given by Mr Branson who met Skinner around The print was placed in position on the blade of the knife, and rubbed with the finger. The design being now transferred, a little oil was brushed on, and the acid applied.
In a few minutes the etching was complete. So simple and easy was the method, that he probably would do half a gross in the hour. Having witnessed his etching, he took me to his rooms in Eldon street, and showed me his jewelled plate. Though a stranger, he invited me to become his partner.
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An improved patent was announced by Skinner and Branson around It was described by The Sheffield Independent as follows:. When the impression is taken, it is transferred to the article to be decorated, the ink used being of a stick y or glutinous nature. A sponge and warm water are then used to crumble off the paper, when the impression of ink will be found on the metal surface; fine resin powdered is then applied to the surface through a sieve of fine gauze ; the fine particles of resin fix themselves closely to the sticky impression; in fact, sink into it.
In this state, the work is left for a few hours; by this time the impression becomes completely saturated with the resin. A soft brush then dusts off the powdered resin which is very important by a soft rag. By this time, you have the resin sunk into and on the design, while the surface is perfectly clean from it.
In this state, hot water is poured on the work, which melts the resin and amalgamates it with the printing ink , which becomes a varnish sufficiently powerful to resist strong acid. The work is then bitten in in the same method by which engravers bite in their work. The surface being cleansed, the article is then ready for plating The acids used are, of course, the secrets of the trade. Being employed at these works, he induced the proprietor to purchase the invention for etching at a goodly price.
It was, however, soon found out that the patent of could not be enforced, the process being now common in the trade. Mr Skinner showed me a painting of these works, a large red brick building, unpicturesque in its angular and staring newness. Thomas Skinner was an etcher, an artist and a landscape painter in oils, showing "considerable merit as an amateur". The Sheffield Daily Telegraph said, "Altogether his style of colour is vivid and showy; lacking the suggestiveness of mystery.
At Female attendees made it clear that "The Heeley Queen had few friends amongst them," and amongst them were Skinner's two sisters and Jane Jones, his former housekeeper. When Kate Dover's sentence was reported, it was "hailed with apparent satisfaction," and "the greatest merriment prevailed throughout. Bidders were permitted to believe that a tin pudding dish was the one used for the poisoned onion stuffing, and it realised 1s 2d and an announcement from the winning bidder that it would hang on the wall, although the real dish for poisoning was in the hands of the police.
Nearly forty of Skinner's oil paintings were in the sale. The Sheffield Independent thought them "crudely executed".
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In Skinner painted the new works at Beaver Falls, and on 14 November of that year the Fishkill Standard reported: . The Sweetest Thing. Lilian Darcy. Susan Carlisle.
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