Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present


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This article explores an episode of possible cooperation between two states that could have been mutually advantageous, at a moment in which international nuclear nonproliferation norms limited their quests for nuclear autonomy. The similarities between the two countries — both rich in nuclear minerals, both opposing the NPT, and with the ambition to master the production of atomic energy — could have led to fruitful cooperation at the industrial and technological levels.

The Nuclear Renaissance in a World of Nuclear Apartheid - unpogamosa.gq

The sole difference was that of their different security threats. While South Africa eventually built its nuclear deterrent, Brazil never took the same path. Even if Brazilian and South African scientists favoured a possible exchange in the nuclear field, political and probably also technical reasons impeded it. From the mids onwards, the Latin American country participated in the international anti-apartheid campaign that led to South African diplomatic isolation. Unlike previous years, economic reasons could no longer justify a different approach.

At a moment in which Brazil was building new relations with the former Portuguese territories in Africa, it would be hard to cooperate with a country that was threatening the stability of the Angolan and Mozambican governments.

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The price to pay would be too high. This study demonstrates how high politics, such as the international anti-apartheid campaign or the possibility of retaliation by other Third World countries, determined the Brazilian refusal to accept sensitive nuclear technologies.

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Despite its nuclear ambitions, which did not rule out the possibility to construct a nuclear device, Brazil discarded the South African offer. As shown in this article, the jet-nozzle enrichment process and the South African-derived method could produce highly enriched uranium. It represented a technological and strategic loss that Brazil finally overcame when it mastered the uranium ultracentrifuge technology in the mids.


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Even though Brazil did eventually decide not to produce nuclear weapons, during the late s, it declared no intention to abandon the ambition to develop atomic devices. This article contributes not only to the literature about nuclear assistance, but also to a new wave of historiography about the evolution of the nuclear order in the s, at a time of great transformation, in a field thus far dominated by the main nuclear powers.

In that period, the global South emerged as a new voice, claiming for nuclear autonomy and fairer norms on the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Abraham, I. Brenner, M. Nuclear power and non-proliferation: the re-making of the U. S policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, Camargo, G. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, The nuclear axis: secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa. New York: Times Books, Visita ao Brasil do Doutor Abraham Roux. Confidencial Urgente. Energia Nuclear Universo de 56 a Reatores Centrais Nucleares. Caixa Congresso de Hamburgo.


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Programa Sul-Africano. Fuhrmann, M. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Gall, N. Gavin, F. Logevall and A. Preston, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Geisel, E. EGpe Gleijeses, P. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington and Africa, — Chapel Hill, N.


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Gathering rare ores: the diplomacy of uranium acquisition, — Princeton: Princeton University Press, Hibbs, M. International Atomic Energy Agency. Viena: IAEA, Kroenig, M. Exporting the bomb: technology transfer and the spread of nuclear weapons.

Lima, M. The Political economy of brazilian foreign policy: nuclear energy, trade and Itaipu. Maddock, S. Nuclear apartheid: the quest for american atomic supremacy from World War II to the present. Mazisa, Z. Melo, O. Moeed, Y. Predicting proliferation: the history of the future of nuclear proliferation. Washington, D. Policy paper, no. Nedal, D. Nogueira Batista, P. Albuquerque, 19— Nuti, L.

Shane J. Maddock

Oliveira, O. Os descaminhos do Brasil nuclear. Ornstein, R. Carasales, coords. Patti, C. Penna Filho, P. Roerlich, E. Related Blog Posts. Drawing on recently declassified sources from U.

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Beginning with the discovery of fission in and ending with George W. Bush's nuclear policy and his preoccupation with the "axis of evil," Maddock uncovers the deeply ideological underpinnings of U. The unintended result of the nuclear exclusion of nations such as North Korea, Pakistan, and Iran is, increasingly, rebellion. Here is an illuminating look at how an American nuclear policy based on misguided ideological beliefs has unintentionally paved the way for an international "wild west" of nuclear development, dramatically undercutting the goal of nuclear containment and diminishing U.

About the Author Shane J. Maddock is professor of history at Stonehill College. For more information about Shane J. It just cannot happen in the real world. In the end, no matter the short term benefits to security, when the West severs the ties that bind disarmament to nonproliferation, it further undermines the trust of the developing world and long-term prospects for international security. We sniff out issues hiding in the foreign-policy forest and haul them back to the laboratory for inspection.

We examine the anterior, posterior, and underside of an issue, as well as its shadows. This blog provides a commentator with an opportunity to express his or her convictions more forcefully than may be appropriate for an article. If you have unique insight into a foreign-policy or affairs issue, please feel free to write a post and send it to editor Russ Wellen at deproliferator gmail.

Ford places the issue in historical perspective: If iron had threatened to offer the Vikings an insuperable advantage, would the Skraelings [indigenous peoples of Greenland and Newfoundland — RW] have been justified in developing a. More to the point, he writes:. Share this: Print.

Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present
Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present Nuclear Apartheid: The Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present

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